Installing Digital Image standard on Windows 10? – Microsoft Community – Question Info
When trying to make an older program work in Windows 10, it is unlikely that it will work as expected unless you upgraded to Windows 10 with the program already installed on your PC. The only workaround that I can suggest is to install the program. Was this reply helpful? Yes No.
Sorry this didn’t help. Thanks for your feedback. I tried to do what you suggested but since it won’t even install the program at all I cannot try what you said. It starts, gets half way and then 12 hours later is not finished installing and I have to cancel the installation.
This product does not install on bit platform. I did find the program listed on my pc under program files x86 and right clicked it and tried to “restore previous versions” but no luck there either since my computer was reset to factory specs.
Note: Once again right click on your installer and hen run it in compatibility with Windows XP as we suggest, that is where IE 6 is compatible.
Let’s see if that works out. However if you want to download IE 6, unfortunately, there’s no downloadable file available on any of our official websites. I then transferred the file after installation to a usb and placed in my programs x86 since its a 32 bit application. Item 2 Install MID Item 1. I had the following programs installed in my PC for some years until the Win 10 update of recent months removed them:.
I too have tried numerous work-arounds with no success. This appears to me to be MS way of dumping our older but still fine programs, which we paid retail prices for at the time, then they will re-introduce them on a lease-hold basis. That may be OK for big business but many of us are hobby users and we will walk if pushed too far. Hay que probar Este mensaje no se instala en las plataformas de 64 bits”.
I’m one of the lucky ones. I have Corel Paintshop, Gimp and Photoshop Elements but still find myself going back to Digital Image Suite because it is in most respects very easy to use. But I do have one problem and I wonder if anyone can help me with it. When I use the selection tools, such as edge finder, I can see no way to save the selected image I have created with that and the other selection tools. I realise that the fault must be mine and the solution must be simple but I can’t find it with the help within the program or the hard copy manual I have to go with the software.
Please help someone – please. Choose where you want to search below Search Search the Community. Search the community and support articles Windows Windows 10 Search Community member. Joan T. However a factory reset removed it. In trying to reinstall, I get the message the IE6 is needed to run it. Is there anyway I can continue to use this software with my Win10 64 bit platform?
This program has been phenomenal for the past 12 years and I want to continue with it rather than switch to another photo editing program. This thread is locked. You can follow the question or vote as helpful, but you cannot reply to this thread.
I have the same question Report abuse. Details required :. Cancel Submit. Previous Next. Patricia Yu Microsoft Agent. Hi Joan, When trying to make an older program work in Windows 10, it is unlikely that it will work as expected unless you upgraded to Windows 10 with the program already installed on your PC.
Here’s how: Right-click on the program, and then select Properties. Go to the Compatibility tab. Check the box for Run this program in compatibility mode for. Click the drop-down menu, and then select older versions of Windows. Whichever works. Click Apply , and then OK. Additionally, I suggest that you run the Program Compatibility Troubleshooter.
Open Control Panel. Under Programs , click on Program Compatibility Troubleshooter , and then go through the troubleshooter. Let us know how it turns out. How satisfied are you with this reply? Thanks for your feedback, it helps us improve the site. In reply to Patricia Yu’s post on February 10, Guess I’m out of luck in using that program!
User Moderator. In reply to Joan T. Reid1’s post on February 18, Hit F12 key Go to Emulation. Under User agent string , choose Internet Explorer 6. Hope it helps. If you have any other concern, don’t hesitate to come back to us.
In reply to A. User’s post on February 18, I tried to set up compatibility mode to an early version and to no avail nothing pops up It does work on my VM Windows XP so i know the file is not corrupt.
Not sure if there is a workaround for this now but anything I haven’t tried let me know. Hello All, This is the best program for editing images Install Windows 8. Install Microsoft Digital Image 3. Install Total Uninstall 4. Return to your Windows 10 x64 6. Install Total Uninstall on your Windows 10 7. MDI Editor will not run yet. Now reinstall MDI from installation disk to Windows 10 x64 Enjoy your Microsoft Digital Image :.
In reply to JanAntal’s post on July 9, Please expand your explanation for those of us who do not read minds. Your first sentence is incorrect.
In reply to RobertMcConnell2’s post on September 7, This answer came from somebody called Jan antal and not myself so ask them to expand. I understand you don’t read minds but please read the the posts.. This site in other languages x.
Install Microsoft Digital Image on Windows 10 64bit – Microsoft Community – Navigation menu
The Roman abacus was developed from devices used in Babylonia as early as BC. Since then, many other forms of reckoning boards or tables have been invented. In a medieval European counting house , a checkered cloth would be placed on a table, and markers moved around on it according to certain rules, as an aid to calculating sums of money. The Antikythera mechanism is believed to be the earliest known mechanical analog computer , according to Derek J.
It was discovered in in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek island of Antikythera , between Kythera and Crete , and has been dated to approximately c. Devices of comparable complexity to the Antikythera mechanism would not reappear until the fourteenth century. Many mechanical aids to calculation and measurement were constructed for astronomical and navigation use. A combination of the planisphere and dioptra , the astrolabe was effectively an analog computer capable of working out several different kinds of problems in spherical astronomy.
An astrolabe incorporating a mechanical calendar computer   and gear -wheels was invented by Abi Bakr of Isfahan , Persia in The sector , a calculating instrument used for solving problems in proportion, trigonometry, multiplication and division, and for various functions, such as squares and cube roots, was developed in the late 16th century and found application in gunnery, surveying and navigation.
The planimeter was a manual instrument to calculate the area of a closed figure by tracing over it with a mechanical linkage. The slide rule was invented around — by the English clergyman William Oughtred , shortly after the publication of the concept of the logarithm.
It is a hand-operated analog computer for doing multiplication and division. As slide rule development progressed, added scales provided reciprocals, squares and square roots, cubes and cube roots, as well as transcendental functions such as logarithms and exponentials, circular and hyperbolic trigonometry and other functions. Slide rules with special scales are still used for quick performance of routine calculations, such as the E6B circular slide rule used for time and distance calculations on light aircraft.
In the s, Pierre Jaquet-Droz , a Swiss watchmaker , built a mechanical doll automaton that could write holding a quill pen. By switching the number and order of its internal wheels different letters, and hence different messages, could be produced.
In effect, it could be mechanically “programmed” to read instructions. In —, mathematician and engineer Giovanni Plana devised a Perpetual Calendar machine , which, through a system of pulleys and cylinders and over, could predict the perpetual calendar for every year from AD 0 that is, 1 BC to AD , keeping track of leap years and varying day length. The tide-predicting machine invented by the Scottish scientist Sir William Thomson in was of great utility to navigation in shallow waters.
It used a system of pulleys and wires to automatically calculate predicted tide levels for a set period at a particular location. The differential analyser , a mechanical analog computer designed to solve differential equations by integration , used wheel-and-disc mechanisms to perform the integration. In , Sir William Thomson had already discussed the possible construction of such calculators, but he had been stymied by the limited output torque of the ball-and-disk integrators.
The torque amplifier was the advance that allowed these machines to work. Starting in the s, Vannevar Bush and others developed mechanical differential analyzers.
Charles Babbage , an English mechanical engineer and polymath , originated the concept of a programmable computer.
Considered the ” father of the computer “,  he conceptualized and invented the first mechanical computer in the early 19th century.
After working on his revolutionary difference engine , designed to aid in navigational calculations, in he realized that a much more general design, an Analytical Engine , was possible.
The input of programs and data was to be provided to the machine via punched cards , a method being used at the time to direct mechanical looms such as the Jacquard loom.
For output, the machine would have a printer, a curve plotter and a bell. The machine would also be able to punch numbers onto cards to be read in later. The Engine incorporated an arithmetic logic unit , control flow in the form of conditional branching and loops , and integrated memory , making it the first design for a general-purpose computer that could be described in modern terms as Turing-complete. The machine was about a century ahead of its time.
All the parts for his machine had to be made by hand — this was a major problem for a device with thousands of parts. Eventually, the project was dissolved with the decision of the British Government to cease funding.
Babbage’s failure to complete the analytical engine can be chiefly attributed to political and financial difficulties as well as his desire to develop an increasingly sophisticated computer and to move ahead faster than anyone else could follow. Nevertheless, his son, Henry Babbage , completed a simplified version of the analytical engine’s computing unit the mill in He gave a successful demonstration of its use in computing tables in During the first half of the 20th century, many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated analog computers , which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computation.
However, these were not programmable and generally lacked the versatility and accuracy of modern digital computers. The differential analyser , a mechanical analog computer designed to solve differential equations by integration using wheel-and-disc mechanisms, was conceptualized in by James Thomson , the elder brother of the more famous Sir William Thomson. The art of mechanical analog computing reached its zenith with the differential analyzer , built by H. This built on the mechanical integrators of James Thomson and the torque amplifiers invented by H.
A dozen of these devices were built before their obsolescence became obvious. By the s, the success of digital electronic computers had spelled the end for most analog computing machines, but analog computers remained in use during the s in some specialized applications such as education slide rule and aircraft control systems. By , the United States Navy had developed an electromechanical analog computer small enough to use aboard a submarine.
This was the Torpedo Data Computer , which used trigonometry to solve the problem of firing a torpedo at a moving target. During World War II similar devices were developed in other countries as well. Early digital computers were electromechanical ; electric switches drove mechanical relays to perform the calculation. These devices had a low operating speed and were eventually superseded by much faster all-electric computers, originally using vacuum tubes.
The Z2 , created by German engineer Konrad Zuse in , was one of the earliest examples of an electromechanical relay computer. In , Zuse followed his earlier machine up with the Z3 , the world’s first working electromechanical programmable , fully automatic digital computer.
It was quite similar to modern machines in some respects, pioneering numerous advances such as floating-point numbers. Rather than the harder-to-implement decimal system used in Charles Babbage ‘s earlier design , using a binary system meant that Zuse’s machines were easier to build and potentially more reliable, given the technologies available at that time.
Zuse’s next computer, the Z4 , became the world’s first commercial computer; after initial delay due to the Second World War, it was completed in and delivered to the ETH Zurich. Purely electronic circuit elements soon replaced their mechanical and electromechanical equivalents, at the same time that digital calculation replaced analog.
The engineer Tommy Flowers , working at the Post Office Research Station in London in the s, began to explore the possible use of electronics for the telephone exchange. Experimental equipment that he built in went into operation five years later, converting a portion of the telephone exchange network into an electronic data processing system, using thousands of vacuum tubes. The German encryption machine, Enigma , was first attacked with the help of the electro-mechanical bombes which were often run by women.
Colossus was the world’s first electronic digital programmable computer. It had paper-tape input and was capable of being configured to perform a variety of boolean logical operations on its data, but it was not Turing-complete. Colossus Mark I contained 1, thermionic valves tubes , but Mark II with 2, valves, was both five times faster and simpler to operate than Mark I, greatly speeding the decoding process. Like the Colossus, a “program” on the ENIAC was defined by the states of its patch cables and switches, a far cry from the stored program electronic machines that came later.
Once a program was written, it had to be mechanically set into the machine with manual resetting of plugs and switches. It combined the high speed of electronics with the ability to be programmed for many complex problems.
It could add or subtract times a second, a thousand times faster than any other machine. It also had modules to multiply, divide, and square root. High speed memory was limited to 20 words about 80 bytes. Built under the direction of John Mauchly and J. The machine was huge, weighing 30 tons, using kilowatts of electric power and contained over 18, vacuum tubes, 1, relays, and hundreds of thousands of resistors, capacitors, and inductors.
The principle of the modern computer was proposed by Alan Turing in his seminal paper,  On Computable Numbers. Turing proposed a simple device that he called “Universal Computing machine” and that is now known as a universal Turing machine. He proved that such a machine is capable of computing anything that is computable by executing instructions program stored on tape, allowing the machine to be programmable.
The fundamental concept of Turing’s design is the stored program , where all the instructions for computing are stored in memory. Von Neumann acknowledged that the central concept of the modern computer was due to this paper. Except for the limitations imposed by their finite memory stores, modern computers are said to be Turing-complete , which is to say, they have algorithm execution capability equivalent to a universal Turing machine.
Early computing machines had fixed programs. Changing its function required the re-wiring and re-structuring of the machine.
A stored-program computer includes by design an instruction set and can store in memory a set of instructions a program that details the computation. The theoretical basis for the stored-program computer was laid by Alan Turing in his paper. In , Turing joined the National Physical Laboratory and began work on developing an electronic stored-program digital computer.
His report “Proposed Electronic Calculator” was the first specification for such a device. The Manchester Baby was the world’s first stored-program computer. Grace Hopper was the first person to develop a compiler for programming language. The Mark 1 in turn quickly became the prototype for the Ferranti Mark 1 , the world’s first commercially available general-purpose computer.
At least seven of these later machines were delivered between and , one of them to Shell labs in Amsterdam. The LEO I computer became operational in April  and ran the world’s first regular routine office computer job. The concept of a field-effect transistor was proposed by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in John Bardeen and Walter Brattain , while working under William Shockley at Bell Labs , built the first working transistor , the point-contact transistor , in , which was followed by Shockley’s bipolar junction transistor in Compared to vacuum tubes, transistors have many advantages: they are smaller, and require less power than vacuum tubes, so give off less heat.
Junction transistors were much more reliable than vacuum tubes and had longer, indefinite, service life. Transistorized computers could contain tens of thousands of binary logic circuits in a relatively compact space. However, early junction transistors were relatively bulky devices that were difficult to manufacture on a mass-production basis, which limited them to a number of specialised applications.
At the University of Manchester , a team under the leadership of Tom Kilburn designed and built a machine using the newly developed transistors instead of valves. However, the machine did make use of valves to generate its kHz clock waveforms and in the circuitry to read and write on its magnetic drum memory , so it was not the first completely transistorized computer. Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in The next great advance in computing power came with the advent of the integrated circuit IC.
The idea of the integrated circuit was first conceived by a radar scientist working for the Royal Radar Establishment of the Ministry of Defence , Geoffrey W. Dummer presented the first public description of an integrated circuit at the Symposium on Progress in Quality Electronic Components in Washington, D.
Noyce also came up with his own idea of an integrated circuit half a year later than Kilby. Produced at Fairchild Semiconductor, it was made of silicon , whereas Kilby’s chip was made of germanium. Noyce’s monolithic IC was fabricated using the planar process , developed by his colleague Jean Hoerni in early In turn, the planar process was based on Mohamed M.
Atalla’s work on semiconductor surface passivation by silicon dioxide in the late s. The development of the MOS integrated circuit led to the invention of the microprocessor ,   and heralded an explosion in the commercial and personal use of computers. While the subject of exactly which device was the first microprocessor is contentious, partly due to lack of agreement on the exact definition of the term “microprocessor”, it is largely undisputed that the first single-chip microprocessor was the Intel ,  designed and realized by Federico Faggin with his silicon-gate MOS IC technology,  along with Ted Hoff , Masatoshi Shima and Stanley Mazor at Intel.
System on a Chip SoCs are complete computers on a microchip or chip the size of a coin. If not integrated, the RAM is usually placed directly above known as Package on package or below on the opposite side of the circuit board the SoC, and the flash memory is usually placed right next to the SoC, this all done to improve data transfer speeds, as the data signals don’t have to travel long distances.
Since ENIAC in , computers have advanced enormously, with modern SoCs Such as the Snapdragon being the size of a coin while also being hundreds of thousands of times more powerful than ENIAC, integrating billions of transistors, and consuming only a few watts of power. The first mobile computers were heavy and ran from mains power. The 50 lb 23 kg IBM was an early example.
Later portables such as the Osborne 1 and Compaq Portable were considerably lighter but still needed to be plugged in. The first laptops , such as the Grid Compass , removed this requirement by incorporating batteries — and with the continued miniaturization of computing resources and advancements in portable battery life, portable computers grew in popularity in the s.
These smartphones and tablets run on a variety of operating systems and recently became the dominant computing device on the market. The term hardware covers all of those parts of a computer that are tangible physical objects. Circuits , computer chips, graphic cards, sound cards, memory RAM , motherboard, displays, power supplies, cables, keyboards, printers and “mice” input devices are all hardware.
These parts are interconnected by buses , often made of groups of wires. Inside each of these parts are thousands to trillions of small electrical circuits which can be turned off or on by means of an electronic switch. Each circuit represents a bit binary digit of information so that when the circuit is on it represents a “1”, and when off it represents a “0” in positive logic representation.
The circuits are arranged in logic gates so that one or more of the circuits may control the state of one or more of the other circuits. When unprocessed data is sent to the computer with the help of input devices, the data is processed and sent to output devices. The input devices may be hand-operated or automated.
The act of processing is mainly regulated by the CPU. Some examples of input devices are:. The means through which computer gives output are known as output devices. Some examples of output devices are:. The control unit often called a control system or central controller manages the computer’s various components; it reads and interprets decodes the program instructions, transforming them into control signals that activate other parts of the computer.
A key component common to all CPUs is the program counter , a special memory cell a register that keeps track of which location in memory the next instruction is to be read from. The control system’s function is as follows— this is a simplified description, and some of these steps may be performed concurrently or in a different order depending on the type of CPU:. Since the program counter is conceptually just another set of memory cells, it can be changed by calculations done in the ALU.
Adding to the program counter would cause the next instruction to be read from a place locations further down the program. Instructions that modify the program counter are often known as “jumps” and allow for loops instructions that are repeated by the computer and often conditional instruction execution both examples of control flow.
The sequence of operations that the control unit goes through to process an instruction is in itself like a short computer program , and indeed, in some more complex CPU designs, there is another yet smaller computer called a microsequencer , which runs a microcode program that causes all of these events to happen.
Early CPUs were composed of many separate components. Since the s, CPUs have typically been constructed on a single MOS integrated circuit chip called a microprocessor. The ALU is capable of performing two classes of operations: arithmetic and logic.
Some can operate only on whole numbers integers while others use floating point to represent real numbers , albeit with limited precision. However, any computer that is capable of performing just the simplest operations can be programmed to break down the more complex operations into simple steps that it can perform.
Therefore, any computer can be programmed to perform any arithmetic operation—although it will take more time to do so if its ALU does not directly support the operation. An ALU may also compare numbers and return Boolean truth values true or false depending on whether one is equal to, greater than or less than the other “is 64 greater than 65? These can be useful for creating complicated conditional statements and processing Boolean logic. Superscalar computers may contain multiple ALUs, allowing them to process several instructions simultaneously.
A computer’s memory can be viewed as a list of cells into which numbers can be placed or read. Each cell has a numbered “address” and can store a single number. The computer can be instructed to “put the number into the cell numbered ” or to “add the number that is in cell to the number that is in cell and put the answer into cell Letters, numbers, even computer instructions can be placed into memory with equal ease.
Since the CPU does not differentiate between different types of information, it is the software’s responsibility to give significance to what the memory sees as nothing but a series of numbers. In almost all modern computers, each memory cell is set up to store binary numbers in groups of eight bits called a byte.
To store larger numbers, several consecutive bytes may be used typically, two, four or eight. When negative numbers are required, they are usually stored in two’s complement notation. Other arrangements are possible, but are usually not seen outside of specialized applications or historical contexts. A computer can store any kind of information in memory if it can be represented numerically. Modern computers have billions or even trillions of bytes of memory. The CPU contains a special set of memory cells called registers that can be read and written to much more rapidly than the main memory area.
In early , the Galaxy S6 became the first Samsung mobile phone to retain the sensor framerate and audio, and in early , the Galaxy S7 became the first Samsung mobile phone with fps recording, also at p. In early , the MT chipset by MediaTek promised p fps video recording. The project’s status remains indefinite. Since early , starting with the Sony Xperia XZ , smartphones have been released with a slow motion mode that unsustainably records at framerates multiple times as high, by temporarily storing frames on the image sensor’s internal burst memory.
Such a recording endures few real-time seconds at most. In late , the iPhone 8 brought p at fps, as well as p at 60fps, followed by the Galaxy S9 in early In mid, the OnePlus 6 brought p at fps, sustainable for one minute. In early , the OnePlus 9 Pro became the first phone with p at fps. Emphasis is being put on the front camera since the mids, where front cameras have reached resolutions as high as typical rear cameras, such as the LG G4 8 megapixels , Sony Xperia C5 Ultra 13 megapixels , and Sony Xperia XA Ultra 16 megapixels, optically stabilized.
The LG V10 brought a dual front camera system where the second has a wider angle for group photography. Samsung implemented a front-camera sweep panorama panorama selfie feature since the Galaxy Note 4 to extend the field of view. Apple adapted p front camera video with the late iPhone 7. In , smartphones started adapting p 4K video recording on the front camera, six years after rear camera p commenced with the Galaxy Note 3.
In the early s, larger smartphones with screen sizes of at least millimetres 5. Some companies began to release smartphones in incorporating flexible displays to create curved form factors, such as the Samsung Galaxy Round and LG G Flex. By , p displays began to appear on high-end smartphones. New trends for smartphone displays began to emerge in , with both LG and Samsung releasing flagship smartphones LG G6 and Galaxy S8 , utilizing displays with taller aspect ratios than the common ratio, and a high screen-to-body ratio, also known as a “bezel-less design”.
These designs allow the display to have a larger diagonal measurement, but with a slimmer width than displays with an equivalent screen size. This design characteristic appeared almost simultaneously on the Sharp Aquos S2 and the Essential Phone ,  which featured small circular tabs for their cameras, followed just a month later by the iPhone X , which used a wider tab to contain a camera and facial scanning system known as Face ID.
Other variations of the practice later emerged, such as a ” hole-punch ” camera such as those of the Honor View 20, and Samsung’s Galaxy A8s and Galaxy S10 —eschewing the tabbed “notch” for a circular or rounded-rectangular cut-out within the screen instead,  while Oppo released the first “all-screen” phones with no notches at all,  including one with a mechanical front camera that pops up from the top of the device Find X ,  and a prototype for a front-facing camera that can be embedded and hidden below the display, using a special partially-translucent screen structure that allows light to reach the image sensor below the panel.
Displays supporting refresh rates higher than 60 Hz such as 90 Hz or Hz also began to appear on smartphones in ; initially confined to “gaming” smartphones such as the Razer Phone and Asus ROG Phone , they later became more common on flagship phones such as the Pixel 4 and Samsung Galaxy S21 series Higher refresh rates allow for smoother motion and lower input latency, but often at the cost of battery life.
As such, the device may offer a means to disable high refresh rates, or be configured to automatically reduce the refresh rate when there is low on-screen motion. An early implementation of multiple simultaneous tasks on a smartphone display are the picture-in-picture video playback mode “pop-up play” and “live video list” with playing video thumbnails of the Samsung Galaxy S3 , the former of which was later delivered to the Samsung Galaxy Note through a software update.
The earliest implementation of desktop and laptop-like windowing was on the Samsung Galaxy Note 3. Smartphones utilizing flexible displays were theorized as possible once manufacturing costs and production processes were feasible. Also that month, Samsung presented a prototype phone featuring an “Infinity Flex Display” at its developers conference, with a smaller, outer display on its “cover”, and a larger, tablet-sized display when opened. Samsung stated that it also had to develop a new polymer material to coat the display as opposed to glass.
In November , Motorola unveiled a variation of the concept with its re-imagining of the Razr , using a horizontally-folding display to create a clamshell form factor inspired by its previous feature phone range of the same name. The first smartphone with a fingerprint reader was the Motorola Atrix 4G in One of the barriers of fingerprint reading amongst consumers was security concerns, however Apple was able to address these concerns by encrypting this fingerprint data onto the A7 Processor located inside the phone as well as make sure this information could not be accessed by third-party applications and is not stored in iCloud or Apple servers .
In , Fairphone launched its first “socially ethical” smartphone at the London Design Festival to address concerns regarding the sourcing of materials in the manufacturing  followed by Shiftphone in In October , Motorola Mobility announced Project Ara , a concept for a modular smartphone platform that would allow users to customize and upgrade their phones with add-on modules that attached magnetically to a frame.
Microsoft, expanding upon the concept of Motorola’s short-lived “Webtop”, unveiled functionality for its Windows 10 operating system for phones that allows supported devices to be docked for use with a PC-styled desktop environment. Samsung and LG used to be the “last standing” manufacturers to offer flagship devices with user-replaceable batteries.
But in , Samsung succumbed to the minimalism trend set by Apple, introducing the Galaxy S6 without a user-replaceable battery. Major technologies that began to trend in included a focus on virtual reality and augmented reality experiences catered towards smartphones, the newly introduced USB-C connector, and improving LTE technologies.
In , adjustable screen resolution known from desktop operating systems was introduced to smartphones for power saving, whereas variable screen refresh rates were popularized in In , the first smartphones featuring fingerprint readers embedded within OLED displays were announced, followed in by an implementation using an ultrasonic sensor on the Samsung Galaxy S In , the majority of smartphones released have more than one camera, are waterproof with IP67 and IP68 ratings, and unlock using facial recognition or fingerprint scanners.
In , the first smartphones featuring high-speed 5G network capability were announced. Since , smartphones have decreasingly been shipped with rudimentary accessories like a power adapter and headphones that have historically been almost invariably within the scope of delivery.
This trend was initiated with Apple’s iPhone 12 , followed by Samsung and Xiaomi on the Galaxy S21 and Mi 11 respectively, months after having mocked the same through advertisements. The reason cited is reducing environmental footprint, though reaching raised charging rates supported by newer models demands a new charger shipped through separate packaging with its own environmental footprint.
Some are also equipped with an FM radio receiver, a hardware notification LED , and an infrared transmitter for use as remote control. Few have additional sensors such as thermometer for measuring ambient temperature, hygrometer for humidity, and a sensor for ultraviolet ray measurement. Few exotic smartphones designed around specific purposes are equipped with uncommon hardware such as a projector Samsung Beam i and Samsung Galaxy Beam i , optical zoom lenses Samsung Galaxy S4 Zoom and Samsung Galaxy K Zoom , thermal camera , and even PMR walkie-talkie radio transceiver.
Smartphones have central processing units CPUs , similar to those in computers, but optimised to operate in low power environments. The performance of mobile CPU depends not only on the clock rate generally given in multiples of hertz  but also on the memory hierarchy. Because of these challenges, the performance of mobile phone CPUs is often more appropriately given by scores derived from various standardized tests to measure the real effective performance in commonly used applications.
Smartphones are typically equipped with a power button and volume buttons. Some pairs of volume buttons are unified. Some are equipped with a dedicated camera shutter button. The presence of physical front-side buttons such as the home and navigation buttons has decreased throughout the s, increasingly becoming replaced by capacitive touch sensors and simulated on-screen buttons. As with classic mobile phones, early smartphones such as the Samsung Omnia II were equipped with buttons for accepting and declining phone calls.
Due to the advancements of functionality besides phone calls, these have increasingly been replaced by navigation buttons such as “menu” also known as “options” , “back”, and “tasks”.
Since , smartphones’ home buttons started integrating fingerprint scanners , starting with the iPhone 5s and Samsung Galaxy S5. Functions may be assigned to button combinations. For example, screenshots can usually be taken using the home and power buttons, with a short press on iOS and one-second holding Android OS, the two most popular mobile operating systems.
On smartphones with no physical home button, usually the volume-down button is instead pressed with the power button. Some smartphones have a screenshot and possibly screencast shortcuts in the navigation button bar or the power button menu. One of the main characteristics of smartphones is the screen. Depending on the device’s design, the screen fills most or nearly all of the space on a device’s front surface.
Many smartphone displays have an aspect ratio of , but taller aspect ratios became more common in , as well as the aim to eliminate bezels by extending the display surface to as close to the edges as possible.
Screen sizes are measured in diagonal inches. Phones with screens larger than 5. Smartphones with screens over 4. Due to design advances, some modern smartphones with large screen sizes and “edge-to-edge” designs have compact builds that improve their ergonomics, while the shift to taller aspect ratios have resulted in phones that have larger screen sizes whilst maintaining the ergonomics associated with smaller displays.
Some displays are integrated with pressure-sensitive digitizers, such as those developed by Wacom and Samsung ,  and Apple’s Force Touch system. A few phones, such as the YotaPhone prototype, are equipped with a low-power electronic paper rear display, as used in e-book readers.
Hovering can enable preview tooltips such as on the video player ‘s seek bar, in text messages, and quick contacts on the dial pad , as well as lock screen animations, and the simulation of a hovering mouse cursor on web sites.
Some styluses support hovering as well and are equipped with a button for quick access to relevant tools such as digital post-it notes and highlighting of text and elements when dragging while pressed, resembling drag selection using a computer mouse. Few devices such as the iPhone 6s until iPhone Xs and Huawei Mate S are equipped with a pressure-sensitive touch screen , where the pressure may be used to simulate a gas pedal in video games, access to preview windows and shortcut menus, controlling the typing cursor, and a weight scale, the latest of which has been rejected by Apple from the App Store.
Many smartphones except Apple iPhones are equipped with low-power light-emitting diodes besides the screen that are able to notify the user about incoming messages, missed calls, low battery levels, and facilitate locating the mobile phone in darkness, with marginial power consumption. To distinguish between the sources of notifications, the colour combination and blinking pattern can vary.
Usually three diodes in red, green, and blue RGB are able to create a multitude of colour combinations. Smartphones are equipped with a multitude of sensors to enable system features and third-party applications. Accelerometers and gyroscopes enable automatic control of screen rotation.
Uses by third-party software include bubble level simulation. An ambient light sensor allows for automatic screen brightness and contrast adjustment, and an RGB sensor enables the adaption of screen colour. Many mobile phones are also equipped with a barometer sensor to measure air pressure, such as Samsung since with the Galaxy S3 , and Apple since with the iPhone 6.
It allows estimating and detecting changes in altitude. A magnetometer can act as a digital compass by measuring Earth’s magnetic field.
Samsung equips their flagship smartphones since the Galaxy S5 and Galaxy Note 4 with a heart rate sensor to assist in fitness-related uses and act as a shutter key for the front-facing camera. So far, only the Samsung Galaxy S4 and Note 3 are equipped with an ambient temperature sensor and a humidity sensor , and only the Note 4 with an ultraviolet radiation sensor which could warn the user about excessive exposure.
A rear infrared laser beam for distance measurement can enable time-of-flight camera functionality with accelerated autofocus , as implemented on select LG mobile phones starting with LG G3 and LG V Due to their currently rare occurrence among smartphones, not much software to utilize these sensors has been developed yet.
While eMMC embedded multi media card flash storage was most commonly used in mobile phones, its successor, UFS Universal Flash Storage with higher transfer rates emerged throughout the s for upper-class devices. Benefits over USB on the go storage and cloud storage include offline availability and privacy , not reserving and protruding from the charging port , no connection instability or latency , no dependence on voluminous data plans , and preservation of the limited rewriting cycles of the device’s permanent internal storage.
In case of technical defects which make the device unusable or un bootable as a result of liquid damage, fall damage, screen damage, bending damage , malware , or bogus system updates ,  etc. A memory card can usually [b] immediately be re-used in a different memory-card-enabled device with no necessity for prior file transfers.
Some dual-SIM mobile phones are equipped with a hybrid slot, where one of the two slots can be occupied by either a SIM card or a memory card. Some models, typically of higher end, are equipped with three slots including one dedicated memory card slot, for simultaneous dual-SIM and memory card usage.
The location of both SIM and memory card slots vary among devices, where they might be located accessibly behind the back cover or else behind the battery, the latter of which denies hot swapping. Mobile phones with non-removable rear cover typically house SIM and memory cards in a small tray on the handset’s frame, ejected by inserting a needle tool into a pinhole.
Some earlier mid-range phones such as the Samsung Galaxy Fit and Ace have a sideways memory card slot on the frame covered by a cap that can be opened without tool. Originally, mass storage access was commonly enabled to computers through USB. Over time, mass storage access was removed, leaving the Media Transfer Protocol as protocol for USB file transfer, due to its non-exclusive access ability where the computer is able to access the storage without it being locked away from the mobile phone’s software for the duration of the connection, and no necessity for common file system support, as communication is done through an abstraction layer.
However, unlike mass storage, Media Transfer Protocol lacks parallelism, meaning that only a single transfer can run at a time, for which other transfer requests need to wait to finish. In addition, the direct access of files through MTP is not supported. Any file is wholly downloaded from the device before opened. Sound quality can remain a problem due to the design of the phone, the quality of the cellular network and compression algorithms used in long-distance calls.
The small speakers can also be used to listen to digital audio files of music or speech or watch videos with an audio component, without holding the phone close to the ear. Some mobile phones such as the HTC One M8 and the Sony Xperia Z2 are equipped with stereophonic speakers to create spacial sound when in horizontal orientation. The 3. Among devices equipped with the connector, it is more commonly located at the bottom charging port side than on the top of the device. The decline of the connector’s availability among newly released mobile phones among all major vendors commenced in with its lack on the Apple iPhone 7.
An adapter reserving the charging port can retrofit the plug. Battery-powered, wireless Bluetooth headphones are an alternative. Those tend to be costlier however due to their need for internal hardware such as a Bluetooth transceiver , and a Bluetooth coupling is required ahead of each operation.
A smartphone typically uses a lithium-ion battery due to its high energy density. Batteries chemically wear down as a result of repeated charging and discharging throughout ordinary usage, losing both energy capacity and output power, which results in loss of processing speeds followed by system outages. While such a design had initially been used in most mobile phones, including those with touch screen that were not Apple iPhones , it has largely been usurped throughout the s by permanently built-in, non-replaceable batteries; a design practice criticized for planned obsolescence.
Due to limitations of electrical currents that existing USB cables’ copper wires could handle, charging protocols which make use of elevated voltages such as Qualcomm Quick Charge and MediaTek Pump Express have been developed to increase the power throughput for faster charging. The smartphone’s integrated charge controller IC requests the elevated voltage from a supported charger.
While charging rates have been increasing, with 15 watts in ,  20 Watts in ,  and 45 watts in ,  the power throughput may be throttled down significantly during operation of the device. Wireless charging has been widely adapted, allowing for intermittent recharging without wearing down the charging port through frequent reconnection, with Qi being the most common standard, followed by Powermat. Due to the lower efficiency of wireless power transmission, charging rates are below that of wired charging, and more heat is produced at similar charging rates.
By the end of , smartphone battery life has become generally adequate;  however, earlier smartphone battery life was poor due to the weak batteries that could not handle the significant power requirements of the smartphones’ computer systems and color screens.
Smartphone users purchase additional chargers for use outside the home, at work, and in cars and by buying portable external “battery packs”. External battery packs include generic models which are connected to the smartphone with a cable, and custom-made models that “piggyback” onto a smartphone’s case.
In , Samsung had to recall millions of the Galaxy Note 7 smartphones due to an explosive battery issue. Cameras have become standard features of smartphones. As of phone cameras are now a highly competitive area of differentiation between models, with advertising campaigns commonly based on a focus on the quality or capabilities of a device’s main cameras.
Typically smartphones have at least one main rear-facing camera and a lower-resolution front-facing camera for ” selfies ” and video chat. Owing to the limited depth available in smartphones for image sensors and optics , rear-facing cameras are often housed in a “bump” that’s thicker than the rest of the phone. Since increasingly thin mobile phones have more abundant horizontal space than the depth that is necessary and used in dedicated cameras for better lenses, there’s additionally a trend for phone manufacturers to include multiple cameras, with each optimized for a different purpose telephoto , wide angle , etc.
Viewed from back, rear cameras are commonly located at the top center or top left corner. A cornered location benefits by not requiring other hardware to be packed around the camera module while increasing ergonomy , as the lens is less likely to be covered when held horizontally. Modern advanced smartphones have cameras with optical image stabilisation OIS , larger sensors, bright lenses, and even optical zoom plus RAW images.
HDR , ” Bokeh mode” with multi lenses and multi-shot night modes are now also familiar. Some mobile phones such as the Samsung i Omnia 2 , some Nokia Lumias and some Sony Xperias are equipped with a physical camera shutter button. Those with two pressure levels resemble the point-and-shoot intuition of dedicated compact cameras. The camera button may be used as a shortcut to quickly and ergonomically launch the camera software, as it is located more accessibly inside a pocket than the power button.
Back covers of smartphones are typically made of polycarbonate , aluminium, or glass. Polycarbonate back covers may be glossy or matte, and possibly textured, like dotted on the Galaxy S5 or leathered on the Galaxy Note 3 and Note 4. While polycarbonate back covers may be perceived as less “premium” among fashion – and trend -oriented users, its utilitarian strengths and technical benefits include durability and shock absorption, greater elasticity against permanent bending like metal, inability to shatter like glass, which facilitates designing it removable; better manufacturing cost efficiency, and no blockage of radio signals or wireless power like metal.
A wide range of accessories are sold for smartphones, including cases , memory cards , screen protectors , chargers , wireless power stations, USB On-The-Go adapters for connecting USB drives and or, in some cases, a HDMI cable to an external monitor , MHL adapters, add-on batteries, power banks , headphones , combined headphone-microphones which, for example, allow a person to privately conduct calls on the device without holding it to the ear , and Bluetooth -enabled powered speakers that enable users to listen to media from their smartphones wirelessly.
Cases range from relatively inexpensive rubber or soft plastic cases which provide moderate protection from bumps and good protection from scratches to more expensive, heavy-duty cases that combine a rubber padding with a hard outer shell. Some cases have a “book”-like form, with a cover that the user opens to use the device; when the cover is closed, it protects the screen.
Some “book”-like cases have additional pockets for credit cards, thus enabling people to use them as wallets. Accessories include products sold by the manufacturer of the smartphone and compatible products made by other manufacturers.
However, some companies, like Apple , stopped including chargers with smartphones in order to “reduce carbon footprint ,” etc. A mobile operating system or mobile OS is an operating system for phones, tablets , smartwatches , or other mobile devices. Mobile operating systems combine features of a personal computer operating system with other features useful for mobile or handheld use; usually including, and most of the following considered essential in modern mobile systems; a touchscreen , cellular , Bluetooth , Wi-Fi Protected Access , Wi-Fi , Global Positioning System GPS mobile navigation, video- and single-frame picture cameras , speech recognition , voice recorder , music player , near field communication , and infrared blaster.
By Q1 , over million smartphones were sold with Mobile devices with mobile communications abilities e. Research has shown that these low-level systems may contain a range of security vulnerabilities permitting malicious base stations to gain high levels of control over the mobile device.
A mobile app is a computer program designed to run on a mobile device, such as a smartphone. The term “app” is a short-form of the term “software application”. The introduction of Apple’s App Store for the iPhone and iPod Touch in July popularized manufacturer-hosted online distribution for third-party applications software and computer programs focused on a single platform.
There are a huge variety of apps, including video games , music products and business tools. Up until that point, smartphone application distribution depended on third-party sources providing applications for multiple platforms, such as GetJar , Handango , Handmark , and PocketGear. Since , smartphone shipments have had positive growth. In , smartphone sales began to decline for the first time. The situation was caused by the maturing China market.
In , Samsung had the highest shipment market share worldwide, followed by Apple. In , Samsung had Only Apple lost market share, although their shipment volume still increased by Samsung’s mobile business is half the size of Apple’s, by revenue. Apple business increased very rapidly in the years to TrendForce predicts that foldable smartphones will start to become popular in The rise in popularity of touchscreen smartphones and mobile apps distributed via app stores along with rapidly advancing network , mobile processor , and storage technologies led to a convergence where separate mobile phones , organizers , and portable media players were replaced by a smartphone as the single device most people carried.
Streaming video services are easily accessed via smartphone apps and can be used in place of watching television. People have often stopped wearing wristwatches in favor of checking the time on their smartphones, and many use the clock features on their phones in place of alarm clocks.
Additionally, in many lesser technologically developed regions smartphones are people’s first and only means of Internet access due to their portability,  [ failed verification ] with personal computers being relatively uncommon outside of business use. The cameras on smartphones can be used to photograph documents and send them via email or messaging in place of using fax facsimile machines.
Payment apps and services on smartphones allow people to make less use of wallets, purses, credit and debit cards, and cash. Mobile banking apps can allow people to deposit checks simply by photographing them, eliminating the need to take the physical check to an ATM or teller. In many countries, mobile phones are used to provide mobile banking services, which may include the ability to transfer cash payments by secure SMS text message.
Kenya’s M-PESA mobile banking service, for example, allows customers of the mobile phone operator Safaricom to hold cash balances which are recorded on their SIM cards.
Cash can be deposited or withdrawn from M-PESA accounts at Safaricom retail outlets located throughout the country and can be transferred electronically from person to person and used to pay bills to companies. Branchless banking has been successful in South Africa and the Philippines. Another application of mobile banking technology is Zidisha , a US-based nonprofit micro-lending platform that allows residents of developing countries to raise small business loans from Web users worldwide.
Zidisha uses mobile banking for loan disbursements and repayments, transferring funds from lenders in the United States to borrowers in rural Africa who have mobile phones and can use the Internet. Mobile payments were first trialled in Finland in when two Coca-Cola vending machines in Espoo were enabled to work with SMS payments.
Eventually, the idea spread and in , the Philippines launched the country’s first commercial mobile payments systems with mobile operators Globe and Smart.
Some mobile phones can make mobile payments via direct mobile billing schemes, or through contactless payments if the phone and the point of sale support near field communication NFC. Some apps allows for sending and receiving facsimile Fax , over a smartphone, including facsimile data composed of raster bi-level graphics generated directly and digitally from document and image file formats. In , University of Southern California study found that unprotected adolescent sexual activity was more common among owners of smartphones.
Mobile phone use while driving—including calling , text messaging , playing media, web browsing , gaming , using mapping apps or operating other phone features—is common but controversial, since it is widely considered dangerous due to what is known as distracted driving. Being distracted while operating a motor vehicle has been shown to increase the risk of accidents. In Egypt, Israel, Japan, Portugal and Singapore, both handheld and hands-free calling on a mobile phone which uses a speakerphone is banned.
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